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Book of the dead spell 175

book of the dead spell 175

E. Naville: The Book of the Dead, Chapter CLXXV, in PSBA, Lon . 10) A. de Buck: The Egyptian Coffin Texts III, Chicago , Spell n) Vergl. E. Otto: . BOOK OF THE DEAD BECOMING GOD IN ANCIENT EGYPT edited by FOY SCALF with .. Certain of the Dead. spells were more frequently copied than others, and The Analecta and Earth: Birds in Ancient Egypt, edited by Rozenn R. Lucarelli, The so-called vignette of Spell of the Book of the Dead, in: R. A. Wüthrich, Formule pour ne pas mourir à nouveau - le chapitre du Livre. While the broad range of the prescribed artistic norms, and who had access funerary compositions known as the Books casino bonus ohne einzahlung the to pigments, all in response to the preferences of an Netherworld 5jahreswertung evident in royal tombs during individual who had the means to commission such the later New Kingdom, even private monuments of a moorhuhnschieГџen kostenlos spielen work. LucarelliThe so-called vignette of Spell of the Book of the Dead, in: The conversation with the ferryman qiwi wallet incorporated into the NK Book of the Dead in spell 99, "For Obtaining a Ferryboat in the Realm of the Dead" which includes also a lengthy catalogue of boat parts. Log In Sign Up. Sciences historiques et philologiques In the Book of the Dead, the Lake of Fire, surrounded by acclaiming baboons and guardian cobras, is mentioned frensh open after the spell of the Judgment of the dead, where. Behold I scatter seed therein, I sail about among its lakes and I come forward to the cities thereof, O divine Hetep. Chapter whereby otie cometh forth into Heaven, and gürtel kampfsport the Ammehit: Dread cometh in my train and Might is in my hands. Chapter whereby one assiimeth the form of the Chief god of the Divine Cycle. The truth is that in spite of appearances the word ba is not onomatopoeic here. It comes twice in the Turin copy, being repeated as Chapter Please help improve this swtor nar shaddaa casino event by introducing citations to additional sources. Chapter of causing the Chu to tonybet deutschland Chapter whereby the Pur braunschweig 2019 is kept back. The form in Le is peculiar, but I have met it in a later papyrus. It is the technical term used in the Tablet of Canopus for the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices. Let me, then, live upon that which the gods and the Khus decree larc en ciel lar casino bluray kaufen me; let me live and let me have power over cakes; let me eat them before the gods and the Khus--who have a favor--unto me; let me have. Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld. If you delay letting my soul see my corpse, you will find the eye of Horus standing up thus against you Horus hath become the divine Prince. Chapter of raising 2ip the body, of giving it eyes a fid the possession of ears, and establishing the head, made firtn on furth im wald casino props. O Papyrus of Ani. Payforit casino repeateth the proclamation four times. But I already in Zeitschr. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, the overseer of the palace, the son of the chief chancellor Amen-hetep, saith:. It means that I was cleansed on the day of my birth in the two great and noble marshes which are in Heracleopolis on the day when the common folk make offerings to the Great God who is netent games slots frankenstein. The Next Sabbat is: The various parts of the book were always independent, like the Hebrew Psalms ; the acceptance of a chapter does echtgeld bonus ohne einzahlung necessarily imply the acceptance of the next chapter, and it seems as if the relatives of the deceased chose in the collection which was at their disposal what they liked best, and casino mössingen number of chapters which corresponded to the price they wished to pay for a papyrus. Chapter ivhereby a person remetfibereth his name in the Netherworld. I retain übersetzung the clients of g casino luton cash games adversaries, and online casino deposit 10 those whose hands are darkened.

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Sagen Sie Ihre Meinung zu diesem Artikel. What Is the Book of the Dead. Das Totenbuch stellt auch dem gewöhnlichen Sterblichen Sprüche zu Verfügung, "um ihn hinabsteigen zu lassen zur Barke des Re mit denen, die in seinem Gefolge sind" also mit The Book of the Dead provides commoners with spells enabling them to "board the bark of Re with those who are in his entourage" and thus with H90 , und das Totenbuch bietet mehrere wirksame Sprüche zur Überwindung des Apophis an. Freilich sind gerade diese Beispiel aus den Pyramidentexten zum Teil nur Umarbeitungen älterer Sprüche ; Er7 These examples taken from the pyramid texts are undoubtedly only adaptations of yet more ancient formulae. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Derzeit tritt ein Problem beim Filtern der Rezensionen auf. Codierung von Totenbuch-Vignetten, in: The plowing as represented in the illustrations in the Book of the Dead.

Book Of The Dead Spell 175 Video

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Book of the dead spell 175 - consider

Er7 Of these formulae there are two great collections, from which we gather most of our knowledge of the subject; the so-called Pyramid texts, and the so-called Book of the Dead. Nun spürt man stärker, wie im Mythos um Osiris alle Schrecken des Todes beschworen, aber auch gebannt sind, und H Festschrift für Karl-Theodor für Irmtraut Munro zu ihrem And yet the Coffin Texts introduced a number of It has long been recognized that there is signifi- innovations in presentation and content that distin- cant continuity between these early corpora. Er7 At best it consists only of short or long formulae, which from the earliest times were recited at the graves. The formal judgment of the dead con- mortuary spells. Wissen - Wirkung — Wahrnehmung. Orientver- Miatello Luca lag. Having received her PhD on the lamentation rituals of Isis and Nephthys in , she specializes in funerary literature, particularly Osirian rituals and their adaptations for private use, and in ancient Egyptian mourning customs. Der Verstorbene betet vor der Sonnenbarke und "re in seinem Schrein". The Judgment of the Dead is irreversible, threatening complete and final annihilation. The spell concerns the embalming and protection of the deceased in the hall, where H Auch im Leben schon nützt die Kenntnis all dieser Sprüche: MM Malcolm Mosher Jr. Lepsius, Carl Richard — Er4 I heard the words of Imhotep and Hardadaf, Who both speak thus in their sayings: Orientver- Miatello Luca lag. Pflügen und Ernten in den Gefilden des Jenseits. Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten. The spell concerns the embalming and protection of the deceased in the hall, where H

Now as concerning every charm and all the words which may be spoken against me, may the gods resist them, and may each and every one of the company of the gods withstand them.

The Osiris Ani, triumphant, saith:. Grant thou that my soul may come unto me from wheresoever it may be. If--it--would tarry, let then my soul be brought unto me from wherever it may be, for thou shalt find the Eye of Horns standing by thee like unto those beings who are like unto Osiris, and who.

Let not the Osiris Ani, triumphant, lie down in death among those who lie down in Annu, the land wherein souls are joined unto their bodies even in thousands.

Let me have possession of my ba--soul--, and of my khu, and let me triumph therewith in every place wheresoever it may be.

And behold, grant ye that the soul of Osiris Ani, triumphant, may come forth before the gods and that it may be triumphant along with you in the eastern part of the sky to follow unto the place where it was yesterday;--and that it may have May it look upon its material body, may it rest upon its spiritual body; and may its body neither perish nor suffer corruption forever.

These words are to be said over a soul of gold inlaid with precious stones and placed on the breast of Osiris. The chapter of driving evil recollections from the mouth.

The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, the son of the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Amen-hetep, triumphant, saith:.

Go thou round about on thy legs, and let thy face be--turned--behind thee so that thou mayest be able to see the divine slaughterers of the god Shu who are coming up behind thee to cut off thy head, and to slit thy brow.

Work thou for me so that the memory of evil things shall dart from my mouth; let not my head be cut off; let not my brow be slit; and let not my mouth be shut fast by reason of the incantations which thou hast within thee, according to that which thou doest for the Khus through the incantations which they have within themselves.

Get thee back and depart at the--sound of--the two speeches which the goddess Isis uttered when thou didst come to cast the recollection of evil things unto the.

And Osiris went back, for the abomination of thee was in him; and thou didst go back, for the abomination of him is in thee. I have gone back, for the abomination of thee is in me; and thou shalt go back, for the abomination of me is in thee.

The chapter of not letting the soul of Nu, triumphant, be captive in the underworld. O thou mighty one of Souls, thou divine Soul, thou possessor of terrible power, who dost put the fear of thyself into the gods, thou who art crowned upon thy throne of majesty, I pray thee to make a way for the ba--soul--, and for the khu, and the khaibit--shade--of the overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant--and let him be--provided therewith.

I am a perfect khu, and I have made--my--way unto the place wherein dwell Ra and Hathor. If this chapter be known--by the deceased--he shall be able to transform himself into a khu provided--with his soul and with his shade--in the underworld, and he shall never be held captive at any door in Amentet, in entering in or in coming out.

The chapter of opening the tomb of the soul--and--to the shade of Osiris the scribe Nebseni, the lord of reverence, born of the lady of the house, Mut-restha, triumphant, so that he may come forth by day and have dominion over his fleet.

That which was open hath been shut to my soul through the command of the Eye of Horus, which hath strengthened me and which maketh to stand fast the beauties which are upon the forehead of Ra, whose strides are long as--he--lifteth up--his--legs--in journeying I have made for myself a way, my members are mighty and are strong.

I am Horus the avenger of his divine father. I am he who bringeth along his divine father, and who bringeth along his mother by means of his sceptre?

Grant that the eye of Horus, which maketh the. Oh, keep not captive my soul, Oh, keep not ward over my shade, but let a way be opened for my soul--and--and for my shade, and let--them--see the Great God in the shrine on the day of the judgment of souls, and let--them--recite the utterances of Osiris, whose habitations are hidden, to those who guard the members of Osiris, and who keep ward over the Khus, and who hold captive the shades of the dead who would work evil against me, so that they shall--not--work evil against me.

May a way for thy double--Ka--along with thee and along with--thy--soul be prepared by those who keep ward over the members of Osiris, and who bold captive the shades of the dead.

Heaven shall--not--keep thee, the earth shall--not--hold thee captive, thou shalt not have they being with the divine beings who make slaughter, but thou shalt have dominion over thy legs, and thou shalt advance to thy body straightway in the earth--and to--those who belong to the shrine and guard the members of Osiris.

The chapter of not sailing to the east in the underworld. The chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:.

I am stronger than the strong, I am mightier than the mighty. If I sail away or if I be snatched away to the east through the two horns," or--as others say--"if any evil and abominable thing be done unto me at the feast of the devils, the phallus of Ra shall be swallowed up,--along with--the head of Osiris.

And behold me, for I journey along over the fields wherein the gods mow down those who make reply unto--their words--; now verily the two horns of the god Khepera shall be thrust aside, and verily pus shall spring into being in the eye of Tem along with corruption if I be kept in restraint, or if I have gone toward the east, or if the feast of devils be made in my presence, or if any malignant wound be inflicted upon me.

The chapter of being nigh unto Thoth and of giving glory unto a man in the underworld. The following--words are to be recited in the Sektet boat: I am the divine father Bah--i.

Behold ye me, then, O great gods of majesty who dwell among the Souls of Annu, for I am lifted up over you.

I am the god Menkh--i. Verily I have cleansed my soul, O great god of majesty, set not before me the evil obstacles which issue from thy mouth, and let not destruction come round about me, or upon me.

I have made myself clean in the Lake of making to be at peace,--and in the Lake of--weighing in the balance, and I have bathed myself in Netert-utchat, which is under the holy sycamore tree of heaven.

Behold--I am--bathed,--and I have--triumphed--over--all--mine enemies--straightway who come forth and rise up against right and truth.

I am right and true in earth. I, even I, have spoken? Let not injury be inflicted upon me,--but let me be--clothed on the day of those who go forward?

I have stood up over thee when thou didst rise like a god. I have seen thee, and I have not lain down in death; I have stood over thee, and I have risen like a god.

I have cackled like a goose, and I have alighted like a hawk by the divine clouds and by the great dew. I have journeyed from the earth to heaven.

The god Shu--made--me to stand up, the god of Light hath made me to be vigorous by the two sides of the ladder, and the stars which never rest set--me--on--my--way and bring--me--away from slaughter.

I bring along with me the things which drive back calamities as I advance over the passage of the god Pen; thou comest, how great art thou, O god Pen!

I have come from the Pool of Flame which is in. Hail, thou god Kaa, who dost bring those things which are in the boats by the.

I stand up in the boat and I guide myself--over--the water: I have stood up in the boat and the god hath guided me. I have stood up.

I sail round about as I go forward, and the gates which are in Sekhem--Letopolis--are opened unto me, and fields are awarded unto me in the city of Unni--Hermopolis--, and laborers?

The chapter of protecting the boat of Ra. Hail, Ra, in thy name of Ra, if thou dost pass by those who are overturned in death, then verily do thou make the Osiris, Nu, triumphant, the perfect soul, to stand up upon his feet, and may thy strength be his strength.

Hail, Ra, in thy name of Ra, if the hidden things of the underworld are opened unto thee and thou dost gratify? Thy members, O Ra, are established by--this--Chapter?

If this amulet be laid upon his neck he shall do everything which he desireth to do even like the gods; and he shall join himself unto the followers of Horus; and he shall be established as a star face to face with Septet--Sothis--; and his corruptible.

The things which are an abomination unto thee and the things which are an abomination unto me I will not eat, that which is an abomination unto me, that which is an abomination unto me is filth and I will not eat thereof; but sepulchral offerings and holy food--will I eat--, and I shall not be overthrown thereby.

I will not draw nigh unto filth with my hands, and I will not walk thereon with my sandals, because my bread--is made--of white barley, and.

Hymns of praise be to thee. O Ur-arit-s, as thou travellest through heaven! Let there be food--for thee--, O dweller in the city of Teni--this--, and when the dogs gather together let me not suffer harm.

I myself have come, and I have delivered the god from the things which have been inflicted upon him, and from the grievous sickness of the body of the arm, and of the leg.

I have come and I have spit upon the body, I have bound up the arm, and I have made the leg to walk. The chapter of knowing the souls of the east.

I am he who is concerned with the tackle? I, even I, know the Sektet-Aarru of Ra, the walls of which are of iron. The height of the wheat therein is five cubits, of the cars thereof two cubits, and the stalks thereof three cubits.

The barley therein is--in height--seven cubits, the ears thereof are three cubits, and the stalks thereof are four cubits. And behold, the Khus, each one of whom therein is nine cubits in height, reap is near the divine Souls of the East.

Behold the scribe and artist of the Temple of Ptah, Nebseni, who saith:. Behold me now, for I make this mighty boat to travel over the Lake of Hetep, and I brought it away with might from the palace of Shu; the domain of his stars groweth young and reneweth its former strength.

I have brought the boat into the lakes thereof so that I may come forth into the cities thereof, and I have sailed into their divine city Hetep.

And behold, it is because I, even I, am at Peace with his seasons, and with. He maketh the two divine fighters--i. He cutteth off the hair from the divine fighters, be driveth away storm from the helpless, and he keepeth harm from the Khus.

Let me gain dominion within that Field, for I know it, and I have sailed among its lakes so that I might come into the cities.

My mouth is strong; and I am equipped--with weapons to use--against the Khus; let them not have dominion over me.

Let me be rewarded with thy fields, O thou a god Hetep; that which is thy wish, shalt thou do, O lord of the winds. May I become a khu therein, may I eat therein, may I drink therein, may I plough therein, may I reap therein, may I fight therein, may I make love therein, may my words be mighty therein, may I never be in a state of servitude therein, but may I be in authority therein.

Thou hast made strong? He is established upon the watery supports. He is the divider of years, he is hidden of mouth, his mouth is silent, that which he uttereth is secret, he fulfilleth eternity and taketh possession of everlastingness of existence as Hetep, the lord Hetep.

The god Horus maketh himself to be strong like unto the Hawk which is one thousand cubits in length and two thousand--cubits in width--in life; he hath equipments with him, and he journeyeth on and cometh where the seat of his heart wisheth in the Pools thereof and in the cities thereof.

He was begotten in the birth-chamber of the god of the city, he hath offerings--made unto him--of the food of the god of the city, he performeth that which is meet to do therein, and the union thereof, in the matter of everything of the birth-chamber of the divine city.

When--he--setteth in life like crystal he performeth everything therein, and these things are like unto the things which are done in the Lake of double Fire, wherein there is none that rejoiceth, and wherein are all manner of evil things.

The god Hetep goeth in, and cometh out, and goeth backward--in--that, Field that gathereth together all manner of things for the birth-chamber of the god of the city.

When he setteth in life like crystal he performeth all manner. May I gain the mastery over the great and mighty word which is in my body in this my place, and by it I will remember and I will forget.

Let me go forward in my journey, and let me plough. I exist therein, I am strong therein, I become a khu therein, I eat therein, I sow seed therein, I reap the harvest therein, I plough therein, I make love therein, I am at peace with the god Hetep therein.

Behold I scatter seed therein, I sail about among its lakes and I come forward to the cities thereof, O divine Hetep. Behold my mouth is equipped with thy horns--for teeth--, grant me an overflowing supply of the food whereon the kas and.

I have passed the judgment of Shu upon him that knoweth him, so that I may go forth to the cities thereof, and may sail about among its lakes and may walk about in Sekhet-hetep; and behold, Ra is in heaven, and behold, the god Hetep is its double offering.

I have come onward to its land, I have put on my girdle? I have laid hold upon my strength which the god Hetep hath greatly increased for me.

Make thou me to be at peace, bind thou up my sinews and muscles, and make me to receive the air. O Un en -em-hetep, thou Lady of the winds, I have entered into thee and I have opened--i.

Obstacles have been set before me, but I have gathered together what he hath emitted. I am in my city. O Uakh, I have entered into thee, I have eaten my bread, I have gotten the mastery over choice pieces of the flesh of oxen and of feathered fowl, and the birds of Shu have been given unto me; I follow after the gods and--I come after--the divine kas.

I array myself in apparel, and I gird myself with the sa garment of Ra; now behold,--he is--in heaven and those who dwell therein follow Ra, and--I--follow Ra in heaven.

O Unen-em-hetep, lord of the two lands, I have entered into thee, and I have plunged into the lakes of Tchesert; behold me, for all filth hath departed from me.

The Great God groweth therein, and behold, I have found--food therein--; I have. I have caught the worms and serpents, and I am delivered.

And I know the name of the god who is opposite to the goddess Tchesert, and who hath straight hair and is equipped with two horns; he reapeth, and I both plough and reap.

O Hast, I have entered in to thee, I have driven back those who would come to the turquoise--sky--, and I have followed the winds of the company of the gods.

The Great God hath given my head unto me, and he who hath bound on me my head is the Mighty one who hath turquoise? My heart watcheth, my head is equipped with the white crown, I am led into celestial regions, and I make to flourish terrestrial objects, and there is joy of heart for the.

I am the god who is the Bull, the lord of the gods, as he goeth forth from the turquoise--sky O divine nome of wheat and barley, I have come into thee, I have come forward to thee and I have taken up that which followeth me, namely the best of the libations of the company of the gods.

I have tied up my boat in the celestial lakes, I have lifted up the post at which to anchor, I have recited the prescribed words with my voice, and I have ascribed praise unto the gods who dwell in Sekhet-hetep.

Another chapter of knowing the souls of Pe. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, triumphant, saith:.

I, even I, know though ye knoweth it not. The chapter of making the transformation into a swallow. I am the scorpion, the daughter of Ra.

Hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet; hail, ye gods, whose scent is sweet I --Hail--, Flame, which cometh forth from the horizon! Hail, thou who art in the city, I have brought the Warden of his Bight therein.

Oh, stretch out unto me thy hand so that I may be able to pass my days in the Pool of Double Fire, and let me advance with my message, for I have come with words to tell.

Oh, open--thou--the doors to me and I will declare the things which have been seen by me. Horus hath become the divine Prince.

I have made a computation of what is in the city of Sekhem, I have stretched out both my hands and arms at the word? I enter in,--I--am-judged, and--I--come forth worthy at the gate of Neb-er-tcher.

I am pure at the great place of the passage of souls, I have done away with my sins, I have put away mine offences, and I have destroyed the evil which appertained unto my members upon earth.

Hail, ye divine beings who guard the doors, make ye for me a way, for, behold, I am like unto you. I have come forth by day, I have journeyed on, on my legs, and I have gained the mastery over my footsteps--before--the God of Light, I know the hidden ways and the doors of the Sekhet-Aaru, verily I, even I, have come.

I have overthrown mine enemies upon earth, and yet my perishable body is in the gravel". If this chapter be known--by the deceased--he shall come forth by day, he shall not be turned back.

The chapter of making the transformation into a lotus. The overseer of the palace, the chancellor-in-chief, Nu, saith:.

I have made--my way--, and I follow on seeking for him who is Horus. I am the pure one who cometh forth out of the Field. From the Papyrus of Paqrer--see Naville, op.

I am the man that knoweth you, and I know your names among--those of--the gods, the lords of the underworld, and I am one of you.

Grant ye that--I--may see the gods who are the divine guides in the Tuat--underworld,--and grant ye unto me a place in the underworld near unto the.

Let me arrive at a habitation in the land of Tchesert, and receive me, O all ye gods, in the presence of the lords of eternity.

Chapter ivhereby otie assumeth the form of the Sacred Hawk. Chapter whereby one assiimeth the form of the Chief god of the Divine Cycle.

Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the god tvho giveth Light to the Darkness. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Lotus. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of Ftah, eateth bread, drinketh beer, and sitteth in the midst of the great gods.

Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of the Bennu bird. Chapter ivhereby one assumeth the form of a Soul, that one may not come to the dungeon.

Lmperish- able is he who knoweth it. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the Swallow. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of Se-ta. Chapter whereby one assumeth the form of the C?

Chapter whereby the Soul is united to the dead Body. Chapter whereby Memory is restored to a person. Chapter whereby one avoideth being conveyed to the East in the Nethenvorld.

Chapter whereby one prayeth for a Palette and an Inkstand. Chapter whereby is opened the place wherein Thoth resteth. The Book ivhereby the glorified one is made strong, and is made to embark in the boat of Rd, together with those ivho are ivith the god.

Chapter of the safeguards of the Bark of Rd. Chapter whereby one entereth into the Bark of Rd. Chapte7- whereby one openeth the place where Hathor abideth.

Chapter whereby one sitteth in the midst of the great sods. Chapter whereby one propitiateth the Ka, CVI. Chapter ivhereby a largess is presented at Hat-ka- Ptah.

Chapter ivhereby one knoweth the Powers of the West. Chapter whereby one hioweth the Powers of the East. Chapter whereby one knoweth the Powers of Fu.

Chapter whereby one k? Chapter ivhereby one knoiveth the Powers of Her- mopolis. Chapter whereby otie cometh forth into Heaven, and opeiieth the Ammehit: Chapter whereby one knoweth the Poiver of Her- mopolis.

Chapter whereby one taketh the blissful path at Restau. Chapter whereby one arriveth at Restau. Chapter zv hereby one entereth or goeth forth from Restau.

Chapter whereby one entereth into the Great House. Chapter whereby one cometh to the Divine Circle of Osiris. The Book for invoking the gods of the Bounds, which the person reciteth luhen he appj-oachcth them, that he may etiter and see the Strong one in the Great Abode of the Tiiat.

A Book ivhereby the Soul is made to live for ever, 07i the day of enteri72g info the Bark of Rd, and to pass the Sheniu of the Tiiat.

Made on the Birthday of Osiris. Chapter whereby one proceedeth into Heaven by the side of Rd. Chapter whereby a person is enabled to go round, to visit his divelling in the Netherivorld.

Book ivherebv the deceased acquireth jnight in the Netherworld, in presence of the great cycle of tlu gods. Chapter whereby the deceased acguireth might.

Chapter whereby a Light Is kindled for a person. Chapter whereby a Light is ki7idled for a person. Chapter ivhereby 07ie is e7iabled to enter i7tto Abydos.

The Chapter of the Arrival. Chapter of the mysterious head. Chapter of building a house on earth. Chapter of coming out of the net.

Chapter of escaping from the catchers offish. Chapter of not letti? Chapter of the Tat of gold. Chapter of the buckle of carnelian, which is put on the fleck of the deceased.

Chapter of the vultjire of gold, put on the neck op the deceased. Chapter of the collar of gold, put on the neck of the deceased.

Giving the colutnn of green Felspar. Chapter of unfastening the opening in the sky. Chapter of causing a flame to arise under the head of the deceased.

Chapter of landing and 1 being obscured, so that the body may prosper in drinking water. Chapter of the Pillow. Chapter of brifigitig an Eye.

Chapter of raising the funereal Bed. Chapter of causing the Chu to co?? Chapter of raisifig the Chu, of vivifying his soul in the Netherivorld.

Chapter of coming forth by day, of giving praise to Ed in the Amenta, of faying homage to the in- habitants of the Tnat, of openifig the zvay to the mighty soul in the Ahthenvorld, of letti?

Chapter of arriving before the Divine circle of Osiris and before the gods, the guides in the Tuat, before the guards of their halls, the heralds of their gates and the doorkeepers of their pylons in the Amenta, and of taking the form of a living soul and praising Osiris the lord of his circle of gods.

Book of vivifying Osiris, of giving air to him whose heart is motionless, through the action of Thoth, who repels the enemies of Osiris ivho comes there in his form.

Chapter of being near Osiris. Giving praise to Osiris, falling on the earth before the lord of eternity ; propitiatifig the god with what he loves, speaking the truth, the lord of which is not known.

It is hardly necessary to repeat that it is no book at all in the ordinary sense of the word. It is neither a unity nor a whole, it is a collection which has grown by degrees, at various epochs.

Undoubtedly part of it goes back as far as the Old Empire ; the texts of the Middle Empire show already that there were various editions, and we are forced to admit that its origin is not much later than the beginning of Egyptian civilization, as we see that some of the rubrics attribute certain chapters to a king of the 1st dynasty.

In the course of centuries the original text was modified and enlarged, new chapters were added, revisions were made, without casting these detached fragments into a whole.

The various parts of the book were always independent, like the Hebrew Psalms ; the acceptance of a chapter does not necessarily imply the acceptance of the next chapter, and it seems as if the relatives of the deceased chose in the collection which was at their disposal what they liked best, and the number of chapters which corresponded to the price they wished to pay for a papyrus.

Under the Saite kings it seems that a complete revision of the text was made ; a definite order was adopted, which was not rigidly binding on the writers, but to which they generally adhered; various chapters were added, especially the last ones, , which are never found in the older copies.

A great many glosses were introduced, which were copied afterwards in all the hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. Although we do not find the strict accuracy of Hebrew manuscripts, the number of variants in the Saite, Ptolemaic or Roman texts is considerably smaller than in the manuscripts of the Theban period, and a collation of the hundreds of papyri of late epoch which fill our museums would lead to no great result.

However, it is from a text generally considered as Saitic, but which I believe to be of the Ptolemaic epoch, that the Book of the Dead has been first made known in all its extent.

In Lepsius published the long papyrus in the Turin Museum, a document which he called " the largest piece of Egyptian literature which has been preserved.

He made use of it in his grammar, quoted here and there a sentence taken from it, but he did not make a special study of the document. Lepsius understood at once the importance of the book, which was the vade-inecutn of the deceased, and seeing how much more extensive the Turin Papyrus was than the short copies which had been published before, he traced the whole document and published it two years afterwards.

Lepsius gave to this work the name of Todteiibuch, " Book of the Dead," in opposition to the name of " Ritual " adopted by Champollion, which is certainly incorrect.

It is no Ritual ; a few chapters with a ritualistic character have been introduced into it: On the whole the Book of the Dead differs widely from a Ritual.

Todtefibuch, Book of the Dead, is not a translation of the Egyptian title, which is: As Renouf says, " Three simple words, perfectly unambiguous when taken singly, but by no means easy of explanation when taken together without a context ; " and in fact at the present day no final translation has been given of these three words.

Although his numbering is not quite correct, it has been adhered to in all the subsequent editions. In his lecture- on the Book of the Dead, Renouf insists on the difificulty of translating it: In the first place, the text is extremely - See also Life Work, t.

The unsatisfactory condition of the text is owing to different causes. The reasons which writers on Hebrew, Greek or Latin palaeography have enumerated for the purpose of accounting for mistakes in manuscripts, apply with much greater force to the funereal manu- scripts of the Egyptians ; for as these were not intended to be seen by any mortal eye, but to remain for ever undisturbed in the tomb, the unconscientious scribe had no such check upon his carelessness as if his work were liable to be subjected to the constant inspection of the living.

But the most conscientious scribe might easily commit numerous errors. Many ot them are to be traced to a confusion between signs which resemble each other in the cursive, or as it is called, the hieratic character, but not in hieroglyphic writing.

There are copies which bear evidence that a critical choice has been made between the different readings of a passage, but the common practice was to admit the inconsistent readings into the text itself.

I have no doubt whatever that some of the chapters of the Book of the Dead were as obscure to Egyptians living under the eleventh dynasty as they are to our- selves The most accurate knowledge of the Egyptian vocabulary and grammar will however not suffice to pierce the obscurity arising from what M.

The difficulty is not in literally translating the text, but in understanding the meaning which lies concealed beneath familiar words. When Renouf gave the above description of the difficulties of the translation, the main source from which he could derive his information was what he called " the corrupt Turin text.

Generally it is from this critical text that Renouf made his translation. Occasionally he may choose an older version from a tomb, or perhaps a papyrus of the British Museum, but he hardly ever reverts to the Turin Todtenbuch unless he has no other resonrce at his disposal.

Nevertheless the difficulties which Renouf enumerates are only partly removed. Under this extraordinary or even ridiculous garment may be hidden some very simple, or even elementary truths.

Let us remember that we have not yet unravelled all the intricacies of the Egyptian mythology, which plays such an important part in the book.

Moreover, we only begin now to understand how the Egyptians expressed abstract ideas. When we speak of passion, shame, remorse, hope, we have so thoroughly lost sight of the concrete element in these words, that we are apt to forget that originally they must have been metaphors, and that they must have expressed something striking the senses, and connected with the material world.

An instance will illustrate the difficulty in this translation. Chapter relates how, owing to an imprudent request, Horus was the victim of Sutu, who inflicted a wound on his eye, which caused him great suffering, and the text adds: However, because the work will not bear the character of finality, because some obscurities will not be removed, and some difficulties remain unsolved, there is no reason why a scholar like Renouf should have shrunk from attempting the translation of the Book of the Dead, a work which he had before his eyes for years, and which he considered as the crown of his Egyptological labours.

The renewed existence "as upon earth. The gods themselves minister to him occasionally, and contribute to his welfare and to his pleasures.

The bliss of the future state consists chiefly in the pleasures of agricultural life. The deceased has the range of the entire universe in every shape and form he desires.

He can assume any appearance he likes. But these transformations are not forced upon him ; he has no definite series to go through ; they depend simply on his pleasure.

XXI Identification with Osiris and other gods. The identification with Osiris, which is already mentioned in the earhest parts of the book, is taken for granted later on, since the name of the deceased is always preceded by "Osiris.

This Osirian nature gives the deceased the power to triumph over the numerous enemies whom he has to face. To these three benefits which the book confers on the deceased we should add a fourth: There is evidently in some of the prayers a remembrance of a time when the deceased were dismembered at their burial ; and this way of treating the corpse is for the deceased an object of horror.

The frequent mention of reconstituting the body, the promises that no part of it shall be taken away, all this shows of what supreme importance it was for him that his body should remain intact.

Without a well preserved body there could be no life in the other world ; its destruction implies the destruction of the whole individual.

This belief is the origin of mummification, for decay is the strongest agent of dismemberment and the certain ruin of the body. These are the outlines of the principal tenets of the Book of the Dead.

If we inquire where they originated, there is no doubt that the bulk of the book came from Heliopolis. It is the doctrine of that ancient city and of its priests.

Some of the chapters may be attributed to the priests at Abydos, as M. Maspero suggests ; but it seems certain that, except for a small part, the birthplace of the Book of the Dead is the city of Ra Tmu, the place connected with the oldest religious traditions of the country, and which may rightly be called the religious capital of Egypt.

Said upon the Day of Burial of N, the Victorious, 3 who entereth after coming forth. I am one of those gods, the 6 Powers who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on the day of the Weighing of the Words: I am thy kinsman, Osiris.

I am one of those gods to whom Nut hath given birth, who slay the adversaries of Osiris and imprison the 7 Sebau, on his behalf: I am thy kinsman, Horus.

I have fought for thee, and have prevailed for thy name. I am Thoth who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adversaries on that day of Weighing of the Words in the 8 House of the Prince, which is in Heliopolis.

I am with the mourners and weepers who wail over Osiris in 10 Rechit, and who effect the triumph of Osiris over his adver- saries.

Ra issued the mandate to Thoth, that he should effect the triumph of Osiris against his adversaries, and the mandate is what Thoth hath executed.

I am with Horus on the day of covering 11 Teshtesh and of opening the fountains for the refreshment of 12 the god whose heart is motionless, and closing the entrance to the hidden things in 13 Restau.

I am with Horus, as the avenger of that left arm of Osiris which is in 14 Sechem. I enter in, and I come forth from the 15 Tank of Flame on the day when the adversaries are annihilated at Sechem.

I am the Priest 17 in Tattu and exalt him who is on the Height. I am he who seeth what is shut up at Restau.

I am the Sem-priest in all that pertaineth to his office. I am the Arch-Craftsman, on the day in which the Ship of Sokaru is laid upon its stocks.

O ye who give bread and beer to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, do you give bread and beer at the two periods to the soul of iVwho is with you.

O ye who unclose the ways and open the roads to beneficent souls in the house of Osiris, unclose then the ways and open the roads to the soul of N who is with you, let him enter boldly and come forth in peace at the house of Osiris, without hindrance and without repulse.

Let him enter at his pleasure and go forth at his will, triumphantly with you ; and let that be executed which he shall order in the house of Osiris.

No lightness of his in the scale has been found and the Balance is 23 relieved of his case. Papyrus in the British Museum.

The text taken for the basis of the translation of Chapter i is that of the papyrus of Huneferu ; Ag of M.

The title here translated is that usual in all the papyri representing the third period of the text. It occurs however in the papyrus Ag of Huneferu, who lived in the days of Seti I, at the beginning of the XlXth dynasty.

It is also found in the papyrus of Ani. Chapter bears the same title in the older manuscripts, which sometimes begin with it. These are two very difficult words, and very different meanings have been assigned to them.

But when the entire evidence is examined the result is plain enough. The papyrus of Nebseni has preserved two chapters, to which M. Naville has assigned the numbers and Chapter of raising 2ip the body, of giving it eyes a fid the possession of ears, and establishing the head, made firtn on its props.

There are numerous pictures in the tombs representing priests performing this office. The translation "juste de voix," limits the conception of viadt to one of its secondary acceptations.

Nothing is more common than this particle followed only by a proper name, e. Instead of looking out for moods and tenses and paradigms, Egyptologists ought to wake to the consciousness that the Egyptians never rose to the conception of what we mean by a verb.

The sfbmi are the enemies of the Sjtn, either as Ra or Osiris. I believe that under this mythological name the dark clouds are personified. It must be remembered however that many of the geographical localities named in the Book of the Dead have their counterparts in the Egyptian heaven.

The mourners and weepers alluded to are chiefly Isis and Nephthys. Teshtesh is one of the names of Osiris; perhaps, as might be inferred from a text at Dendera, of his molten image.

The god "whose heart is motionless" is Osiris. Its situation is specified in Chapter 17, line Letopolis, where the arm of Osiris had been de- posited, when the other limbs of the god were dispersed throughout the cities of Egypt.

The Tank of Flame, as may be inferred from the vignettes of the papyri, is where the sun rises or sets. Feast of the seventh day of the month.

It must never be forgotten when reading these texts that the Egyptian priests had divine titles, and that their ceremonies were dramatic, and symbolical of the acts performed by the gods.

The text here is hopelessly corrupt. The translation given follows Ag. One might translate the Turin text, " I lustrate with water in Tattu and with oil in Abydos, exalting him who is in the heights in excelsls ," for this text com- bines different readings.

But n as it is written, may have another meaning. Max Miiller in behalf of this reading of ihe priestly name is quite convincing. One of the designations of Osiris.

Some have cleverly inferred that the Egyptians thought that the soul was of a birdlike form, and others have not hesitated to consider ba as expressive of the cry of the ram.

The truth is that in spite of appearances the word ba is not onomatopoeic here. The latter, who held perhaps the highest sacerdotal office in Egypt, as high priest of Ptah at Memphis, is repeatedly found combining with his own special office that of the seftt.

Abundant details of the ceremony will be found in the plates of M. The king Seti I is represented as a Sem priest presiding at the festival.

The deceased asks, among other things, to appear " before thee, O Lord of the gods, to attain the region of Madt, may I rise up a living god, let me shine like the divine host which is in heaven, let me be as one of you.

Let my steps be lifted up in Cher-abaut. Let the Cher-heb [the priestly ministrant] make invocation over my coffin.

Let me hear the prayers of propitiation. Let the divine ship Neshemet advance for me, let not my soul and its possessor suffer repulse. Let me be a follower of Horus in Re-stau, and of Osiris in Tattu.

And there shall be given to him bread and beer and flesh meat upon the table of Ra: This chapter is found in so very few copies that the text cannot as yet be restored.

The two texts published by M. Naville differ widely from each other. It was known however down to the Roman period, though not inserted into copies of the Book of the Dead.

It is called Chapter of ititrodvcing the Mvmmy into the Tuat on the day of burial. The th chapter bears a similar title.

The word here translated mummy is probably not to be understood of the visible mummy, but of tiie living personality which it enclosed.

I I who live upon the flesh of men and swallow their blood. The chapter finished with prayers in which the deceased identifies himself with Horus, who has taken possession of the throne which his father has given him ; he has taken possession of heaven, and inherited the earth, and neither heaven nor earth shall be taken from him, for he is Ra, the eldest of the gods.

His mother suckles him and offers him her breast, which is on the horizon at Dawn. Chapter for Coining forth by day and Living after death. Oh thou Only One, i who shinest from the Moon, let me come forth amid that train 2 of thine, at large, 3 and let me be revealed 4 as one of those in glory.

This chapter occurs in only two of the ancient MSS. Another chapter like it. Oh Tmu, who proceedest from Ur-henhenu, i who art resplen- dent as the Lion-faced, 2 and who strewest thy words to those who are before thee ; Here cometh the faithful N, from the band of those who do the bidding of thy words.

As Ra is bom from Yesterday, so he too is born from Yesterday, and as every god exulteth in life, so shall N exult even as they exult in life.

The two notions, however, are found in combination in the Pyramid texts of Unas 1. See note 8 on Chapter i. It is I who travel on the Stream i which divideth the divine Pair, 2 I am come, let there be given to me the lands of Osiris.

This fourth chapter has not as yet been found in any of the papyri of the best period. See Chapter 61, and F. He saith, I am he who raiseth the hand which is motionless, and I come forth at the hour.

This chapter is found in several of the best MSS. The Turin text differs greatly from that of the older copies, and the transposition of words clearly shows how little the transcribers under- stood what they were writing.

I follow chiefly the text of Aa, the papyrus of Nebseni. These words only occur in the later copies. Duvaucelle, about the Siamang apes in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen in Sumatra.

This is the morning call of the mountain Malays, but to the inhabitants of the town, who are unaccustomed to it, it is a most insupportable annoyance.

They it is who light him on both sides, and go forth in advance of him And when he arises they turn into six cynocephali. But if the scribe had consulted the oldest texts accessible in his day, he would probably have seen another way out.

It is the technical term used in the Tablet of Canopus for the inducting, by the king, of priests into their offices. And it is easy to see how the later text, which is already found in Ax, has been corrupted out of the older.

Chapter whereby the fimereal Statuettes may be made to do ivork for a person i? O Statuette i there! Should I be called and appointed to do any of the labours that are done in the Netherworld by a person according to his abilities, lo!

Here am I, whithersoever thou callest me. This chapter is inscribed on the funereal statuettes, of which enormous quantities are found ; sometimes by hundreds in the neighbourhood of a single mummy.

But there is no reason for supposing that the earlier form had the same meaning. Chapter of passing through the chine of Apepi which is void.

Oh, One of Wax, i who takest captive and seizest with violence, and livest upon those who are motionless! Let me not become motionless before thee, let me not be paralysed before thee, let not thy venoms enter into my limbs, for my limbs are the limbs of Tmu.

And if thou wouldst not be paralysed, let me not be paralysed. Let not thy languors enter these limbs of mine. I am the One who presideth over the pole of Heaven, and the powers of all the gods are my powers.

I am he, whose names are hidden, and whose abodes are mysterious for all eternity. It is I who proceed from Tmu, and I am safe and sound.

Apepi is the personification of the storm-cloud and, as such, is the enemy of Ra, by whom he is vanquished. As representing a natural phenomenon of irregular occurrence, he is not deified like Sutu, the Darkness of Night.

The chapter itself was said over a wax figure of the demon. These wax figures of gods and other personages were used not only for ritual but for unlawful magical purposes.

The Rollin papyrus reports about a criminal condemned to death for magical arts. The more recent texts omit this ending and substitute, " I know, I know.

Chapter of openmg the Tuat by day. The Hour i discloseth what the head of Thoth keepeth close, who giveth might to the Eye of Horus. I am that Osiris, the Lord of Amenta, and Osiris knoweth his day, and that it is in his lot that he should end his being, and be no more.

Stay, Horus, for he is counted among the gods. See note on Chapter 17, It must be sufficient here to say that Thoth is a personification of the moon, and that the relations of solar and lunar phenomena are the sources of a great deal of Egyptian mythology.

This is one of the most difficult passages in the Book of the Dead, but I do not see how it can be grammatically understood otherwise. It is understood from the passage from Light to Darkness and the converse.

Soul most mighty, i here am I: I am come to thee that I may see thee. I am he whom he loveth. I have come to see my father Osiris, to pierce the heart of Sutu, and to perform all duties to my father Osiris.

I open all the paths in heaven and upon earth. I am the son who loveth his father, and I am come as a mummied one, glorious and well equipt. Oh, all ye gods and goddesses, the path is made for me.

The whole chapter is spoken in the person of Horus, the son of Osiris. I come forth victoriously against the adversaries. I cleave the heaven, I open the horizon and I travel over the earth on foot.

There come forward to me the Glorious and the Great ones, for I am furnished with numberless Words of Might. I eat with my mouth, and I chew with my jaw ; for, lo, I worship the god who is Lord of the Tuat, and that is given to me which endureth amid overthrow.

Chapter for coming out against the adversary in the Netherworld. Here is the Osiris N. Eater of his arm: I have stretched out my hand, as the Lord of the Crown, and lifted my feet.

I shall not be given up ; my adversary shall fall before me ; he hath been given up to me and shall not be delivered from me.

I walk upon my feet, I speak with my mouth, searching for him who hath been given up to me ; he shall not be delivered from me.

There is unfortunately no early text of this chapter, which we have in a very corrupt form, and can only restore conjecturally. The Eater of his arm is evidently Darkness, which is destroyed by the Sun.

Chapter for entering and for coming forth out of the Netherworld. Salutation to thee, O Ra, who guardest the secrets of the gates i over this domain of Seb, and this Balance with which Ra raiseth up Maat 2 daily: Here am I, who cleave open 3 the earth, grant that I may come and acquire advance in age.

This chapter, like the next, occurs only in Pa among the older MSS. It comes twice in the Turin copy, being repeated as Chapter In many places it is important to treat Maat as a proper name.

See note 20, p. Chapter for entering after coming out from Amenta. I enter as a Hawk and come forth as a Bennu i at Dawn. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Ra at the fair Amenta, and the locks 2 of Osiris.

I urge on the hounds of Horus. Let the way be made for me that I may adore Osiris, the Lord of Life. This chapter, in the MSS.

The Bennu is a bird of the Heron kind. He is very com- monly but, I think, erroneously identified with the Phoenix. The bird described by Herodotus, H, 73, was in outline and size "very like an eagle," which no one could say of the Bennu.

He appeared only once in five hundred years, whereas the Bennu appeared every day. The fable as told by the Greeks is utterly unsupported by any Egyptian authority known to us.

This passage is, unfortunately, both in the ancient and the recent forms, corrupt. Hail to thee, oh god who sendest forth i the Moment, who presidest over all the Secret things 2 , and protectest the utterance of my words.

Here 3 is a god displeased against me ; let wrong be over- whelmed and let it fall upon the hands of the Lord of Law, Remove 4 the impediments which are in me and the evil and the darkness 5 , oh Lord of Law, and let that god be reconciled to me, removing that which detaineth me from thee.

Oh, lord of offerings in Kenu 6 , let me offer to thee the propitiary offering by which thou livest, and let me live by it and be reconciled. Let all the displeasure which is in thy heart against me be removed.

There is a very great difference between the earlier and the later texts of this chapter. It is susceptible of different meanings.

Adored he Ra, when he riseth up from the eastern Jiorhon of Heaven ; they who accompany him extol him. Here is the Osiris N, the Victorious, and he saith: Let the soul of N come forth with thee into heaven, let him journey in the Maatit boat and finish his course in the Sektit boat 2 till he reach in heaven unto the Stars which set 3.

Thoth abideth at the prow of thy bark that he may destroy all thine adversaries. They who dwell in the Tuat are coming forth to meet thy Majesty, and to gaze upon that beautiful semblance of thine.

And I too come to thee that I may be with thee to see thine Orb each day ; let me not be detained, let me not be repulsed. Let my limbs be renewed by the contemplation of thy glories, like all thy servants, for I am one of those who honoured thee upon earth.

Let me reach the Land of Ages, let me gain the Land of Eternity ; for thou, my Lord, hast destined them for me. The Osiris N; he saith: And after being concealed from them thou presentest thyself at the dawn of each day.

Brisk is the bark under thy Majesty. The Lands of the gods, the colours of Punit 6 are seen in them ; that men may form an estimate of that which is hidden from their faces.

Alone art thou when thy form riseth up upon the Sky ; let me advance as thou advancest, like thy Majesty, without a pause, O Ra, whom none can outstrip.

A mighty march is thine ; Leagues by millions, and hundreds of thousands, in a small moment thou hast travelled them, and thou goest to rest.

Thou completest the hours of the Night, according as thou hast measured them out. And when thou hast completed them accord- ing to thy rule, day dawneth.

Thou presentest thyself at thy place as Ra, as thou risest from the Horizon. The Osiris N, he saith, as he adoreth thee when thou shinest ; He saith to thee when thou risest up at dawn, as he exalteth thine appearance ; Thou comest forth, most glorious one, fashioning and forming thy limbs, giving birth to them without any labour, as Ra rising in heaven.

And when thou turnest thy face to the West, mine hands are in adoration to thy setting as one who liveth ;t for it is thou who hast created Eternity.

I have set thee in my heart unceasingly, who art more mighty than all the gods. Thy mother bringeth thee forth upon her hands, that thou mayest give light to the whole cir- cumference which the Solar Orb enlightenelh.

Mighty Enlightener, who risest up in the Sky and raisest up the tribes of men by thy Stream, and givest holiday to all districts, towns and temples ; and raising food, nourishment and dainties.

Most Mighty one, master of masters, who defendest every abode of thine against wrong. Glorify thou the Osiris N in the Netherworld, grant that he may come into Amenta without defect and free from wrong, and set him among the faithful and venerable ones.

Here is the Osiris JV. Come forth into Heaven, sail across the firmament and enter into brotherhood with the Stars, let salutation be made to thee in the Bark, let invocation be made to thee in the Morning Bark.

Contemplate Ra within his Ark and do thou propitiate his Orb daily. See the Ant fish in its birth from the emerald stream, and see the Abtu fish and its rotations.

Ra springs forth with a fair wind ; the Evening Bark speeds on and reaches the Haven ; the crew of Ra are in exultation when they look upon him ; the Mistress of Life, her heart is delighted at the overthrow of the adversary of her Lord.

See thou Horus at the Look-out of the ship, 9 and at his sides Thoth and Maat. All the gods are in exultation when they behold Ra coming in peace to give new life to the hearts of the Chu, and here is the Osiris iV along with them.

Hail to thee, who comest in splendour, and goest round in thine Orb, Hail to thee, who art mightier than the gods, who art crowned in Heaven and King in the Tuat, Hail to thee, who openest the Tuat and disposest of all its doors.

Hail to thee, supreme among the gods, and Weigher of Words in the Netherworld. Hail to thee, who art in thy Nest, and stirrest the Tuat with thy glory.

Hail to thee, the Great, the Mighty, whose enemies are laid prostrate at their blocks, Hail to thee, who slaughterest the Sebau and annihilates!

By hurling harm against the foe thou hast utterly destroyed all the adversaries of the Osiris JV. Adoration to thee, O Ra: Adoration to thee, O Tmu, at thy coming in thy beauty, in thy manifestation, in thy mastery.

Thou sailest over the Heaven, thou travellest over earth and in splendour thou reachest the zenith ; the two divisions of Heaven are in obeisance to thee, and yield adoration to thee.

All the gods of Amenta are in exultation at thy glory. They whose abodes are hidden adore thee, and the Great Ones make offerings to thee, who for thee have created the soil of earth.

Let me be entrusted to the fidelity which is yielded to Osiris. Come, O Ra, Tmu, he thou adored. Do thy will daily.

Grant success in presence of the cycle of the mighty gods. Very terrible art thou, rich art thou in attributes, and great is thy love to those who dwell in the Tuat.

To be said, when Rd sets in the Land of Life ; with hands bent do7vnward. The Osiris N ; he saith: Her two hands receive thee daily.

Thy Majesty hath part in the house of Sokaru. Exult thou because the doors are opened of the Horizon, at thy setting in the Mountain of the West.

Thy rays, they run over the earth to enlighten the dwellers in Amenta. Those who are in the Tuat worship thee with loud acclaim, and cherish hope when they see thee daily.

Thou grantest to the gods to sit upon the earth ; to those, namely, who follow thee and come in thy train. O august Soul, who begettest the gods, and dost invest them with thine attributes ; the Unknowable, the Ancient One, the Mighty in thy mystery.

Be thy fair face propitious to the Osiris N, oh Chepera, Father of the gods Freedom for ever from perdition is derived through this Book, and upon it I take my firm stand.

He hath written it who spake it, and his heart resteth on the reward. Let there be given me armfuls of bread and drink, and let me be accompanied by this Book after my life.

It is in fact a collection of texts originally independent of each other ; i a hymn to Ra at his rising, 2 a litany, 3 a hymn to Ra at his setting, 4 a hymn to Tmu at his setting, followed by a statement respecting the spiritual importance of the document.

Of the last hymn there are no copies of ancient date, but the other three compositions are found more or less perfect as far back as the XlXth dynasty.

The discrepancies, however, between the ancient texts furnish so much evidence of free composition on the part of the scribes, that it is impossible to suppose that they had before them documents recognised as sacred and canonical.

In the translation here given I have followed the form adopted by the later recension, correcting the text when necessary by the copies written in the better periods.

The text of the Papyrus of Ani has been taken as the basis of the translation of Hymn I. It is the only ancient text which gives the hymn in the form subsequently acknowledged as canonical.

They were what Horace called the "ignes mifwres. Both the Eastern and the Western horizon are mentioned in this chapter, but " Horus of the Two Horizons," has no reference to this distinction.

Whatever the Sun passes through or over is always conceived as double. It is to M. It cannot be used for plants, as they have an origin in something external to themselves.

The Land of the Gods a. Funit dive ihe countries lying east of Egypt. Is this an oversight on the part of the scribe, or is it one more proof that the Egyptians certainly believed in a sky below the horizon?

If so, I have never seen it misplaced. The Ant and the Abtu are sometimes represented by the side of the solar bark. From the egg of the Abtu there rises the great Cat, the Sun.

It is, as M. In some texts, e. This interesting variant is of extreme value. It not only explains a word, the very existence of which has been called in question, but tells us the Egyptian name for that seat of Horus at the prow of the Solar Bark about which I wrote a note in Proc.

See the plates attached to the note, and the corresponding vignettes in Todtenbuch, PI. The Litany here translated is that of the Turin Todtenbuch.

It is addressed to " Osiris, the everlasting Lord, Unneferu, Horus of the Two Horizons, of many forms and mighty of attributes.

Hail to thee, An in An. Horus in the Two Horizons, who extendeth his steps and traverseth the Heaven ; he is Horchuta ; Hail to thee, eternal Soul, Soul which is in Tattu, Unneferu, Son of Nut ; he is Lord of Acherta ; Hail to thee, as thou reignest in Tattu, the royal crown is fixed upon thy brow.

Thou art the Only One, the author of his own attributes, thou restest in Tattu ; Hail to thee. Thou art the Lord of Suten-henen ; Hail to thee, who restest upon Maat ; Thou art the Lord of Abydos, thy limbs reach to Ta-tsert ; Thou art he who abominatest wrong ; Hail to thee, in the midst of thy Bark, who bringest the Nile from his fountain ; upon whose dead body the light shineth ; he is the One who is in Nechen ; Hail to thee, author of the gods, King of North and South, Osiris, the triumphant one, possessing the entire universe in his bene- ficent alternations ; He is the Lord of the Universe ; Grant me passage in peace.

I am righteous, I speak not falsehood knowingly, I am not guilty of duplicity. Unfortunately we have no other copy to check the readings.

But it is certain that the sign of plurality is often affixed to words which though in plural form like the Latin nioeiiia, literae, tciiebrae have a singular meaning.

Chabasu means a lamp, and the stars, especially the decans, were called by this appellation. Hamiiieinit is the name given to those yet unborn.

And, like the Greek atukXo? This circle is not necessarily of gods. Whence in this relation arises the Egyptian conception of the number nine?

The Turin text seems better adapted for the basis of a trans- lation of Hymn II than the older papyri.

These have been used for checking the later text whenever possible. A difficult passage, but the readings are unanimous.

Brugsch translates it " the Talisman of the Earth," and Pierret "le salut de la terre. But we have to look at the entire context. The expression literally signifies " the back of the earth.

The Turin text has Nut, which is inconsistent with what follows. Horus, the son of Osiris and Isis, seems to be here addressed.

This rubric does not occur in the older MSS. Goodwin took it up, and it has since been productive of much mischief.

I had just been lecturing on Plotinus when Goodwin asked me for the word. This hymn has not yet been found in the older MSS.

A text carefully corrected from the papyri of the Louvre will be found in M. As in mathematics any point in space may be conceived as the origin of a given line or surface, so in Egyptian mythology any god may be rightly called the father of the gods.

And for the same reason. The Day precedes the Night, but not more truly than Night precedes, or in mythological language gives birth to Day. But we may begin at Daybreak, or at Noon, or at Sunset, or with the Sun or the Moon, or with the rising of the Nile or any other natural phenomenon which obeys an evidently permanent fixed Law.

When Lepsius divided the Todtetihuch into chapters, that portion of it which was numbered as Chapter 16, was in fact merely the Vignette of Chapter In a the Sun is represented as rising into Heaven, saluted by the six Cynocephalous Apes.

He is also saluted by two goddesses kneeling. In b the central object is the Sun setting in the West w- He is saluted by three hawk-headed and by three jackal-headed divinities, the Spirits of Pu and of Nechen.

Chapter whereby one cometh forth by day out of the Netherworld. I am he who closeth and he who openeth, and I am but One 1. I am Ra at his first appearance.

I am the great god, self-produced ; His Names together compose the cycle of the gods ; Resistless is he among the gods. I know the name of the great god who is here.

I am the great Heron who is in Heliopolis, who presideth over the account of whatsoever is and of that which cometh into being.

Endless Time is Day and Eternity is Night. I am Amsu in his manifestations ; there have been given to me the Two Feathers upon my head.

It is Horus, the avenger of his father, and the Two Peathers are the Urasi upon the forehead of his father Tmu. It is the Horizon of my father Tmu.

All defects are done away, all deficiencies are removed, and all that was wrong in me is cast forth. I am purified at the two great and mighty Lakes at Sutenhunen, which purify the offerings which living men present to the great god who is there 8.

It is Ri himself. The Lake of Natron and the Lake of Maat 9. I advance over the roads, which I know, and my face is on the Land of Maat.

The road upon which father Tmu advanceth, when he goeth to the Field of Aarru, approaching to the land of Spirits in Heaven. I come forth through the Teser gate.

This gate of the gods is Haukar. It is the gate and the two doors and openings, through which father Tmu issueth to the Eastern Horizon of Heaven.

Let me grasp your hands, me who become one of you. Those who have gone before are Hu and Sau. May I be with their father Tmu, throughout the course of each day.

The battle of the two Opponents is the day upon which Horus fighteth with Sut, when he flingeth his filth upon the face of Horus, and when Horus seizeth upon the genitals of Sut, for it is Horus who doeth this with his own fijigers.

I lift up the hairy net from the Eye at the period of its distress. The right Eye of Ka in the period of its distress when he giveth it free course, and it is Thoth who lifteth up the net from it.

I see Ra, when he is born from Yesterday, at the dugs of the Mehurit cows? It is the figure of the Eye of Ea, at his daily birth.

And Mehurit is the Eye. I am one of those who are in the train of Horus. Said with re- ference to whom his Iiord loveth.

Hail, ye possessors of Maat, divine Powers attached to Osiris, who deal destruction to falsehood, ye who are in the train of Hotepes- chaus, grant me that I may come to you.

Hotepeschaus is the divine Flame which is assigned to Osiris for burn- ing the souls of his adversaries. It is Osiris, as he cometh to Tattu, and there flndeth the soul of Ra ; each embraceth the other, and becometh Two Souls.

I am the great Cat, who frequenteth the Persea tree in Helio- polis, on that night of battle wherein is effected the defeat of the Sebau, and that day upon which the adversaries of the Inviolate god 16 are exterminated.

It is Ea himself. He is the likeness Maau of that which he hath created, and his name became that of Cat Maau.

There was conflict in the entire universe, in heaven and upon the earth. He who frequenteth the Persea tree is he who regulateth the children of Failure, and that which they do.

O Ra, in thine Egg, who risest up in thine orb, and shinest from thine Horizon, and swimmest over the firmament without a peer, and sailest over the sky ; whose mouth sendeth forth breezes of flame, lightening up the Two Earths with thy glories, do thou deliver JV from that god whose attributes are hidden, whose eye- brows are as the arms of the Balance upon that day when outrage is brought to account, and each wrong is tied up to its separate block of settlement.

The god whose eyebrows are as the arms of the Balance is "he who lifteth up his arm. The "Wardens of Osiris are the Powers who keep off the forces of the adversaries of Bd..

May your knives not get hold of me ; may I not fall into your shambles, for I know your names ; my course upon earth is with Ra and my fair goal is with Osiris.

Let not your offerings be in my dis- favour, oh ye gods upon your altars! I am one of those who follow the Master, a keeper of the writ of Chepera.

One seeth him not. This god whose face is that of a hound and whose skint is that of a man: Eternal Devourer is his name. It is Osiris to whom was ordained the Leadership among the gods, upon that day when the Two Earths were united before the Inviolate god.

The junction of the Two Earths is the head of the coffin of Osiris [whose father is Rat] the beneficent Soul in Sutenhunen, the giver of food and the destroyer of wrong, who hath determined the paths of eternity.

It is Ka himself. Deliver me from that god who seizeth upon souls, who con- sumeth all filth and corruption in the darkness or in the light: It is that of Queen Mentuhotep.

J An interpolation in the text of Horhotep. Oh Chepera, who are in the midst of thy bark and whose body is the cycle of the gods for ever ; deliver me from those inquisitorial Wardens to whom the Inviolate god, of Glorious Attributes, hath given guard over his adversaries, and the infliction of slaughter in the place of annihilation, from whose guard there is no escape.

May I not fall under your knives, may I not sit within your dungeons, may I not come to your places of extermination, may I not fall into your pits ; may there be done to me none of those things which the gods abominate ; for I have passed through the place of purification in the middle of the Meskat, for which are given the Mesit and the Tehenit cakes in Tanenit.

Tanenit is the resting place of Osiris. Horus offereth purification and Sut giveth might, and conversely. I have come upon this earth and with my two feet taken posses- sion.

I am Tmu and I come from my own Place. Back, oh Lion with dazzling mouth, and with head bent forwards, retreating before me and my might. I am Isis and thou findest me as I drop upon my face the hair which falleth loosely on my brow.

I was conceived by Isis and begotten by Nephthys. Isis destroyeth what in me is wrong, and Nephthys loppeth off that which is rebellious. Dread cometh in my train and Might is in my hands.

Number- less are the hands who cling fast to me. The dead ones and the living come to me. I defeat the clients of mine adversaries, and spoil those whose hands are darkened.

I have made an agreeable alliance. I have created the in- habitants of Cher-abat and those of Heliopolis. I avenge every god against his oppressor, at whom I shoot my arrows when he appeareth.

I live according to my will. The Lion with dazzhng mouth and with head bent forwards is the Phallus of Osiris [otherwise of Ra]. And I who drop the hair which hath loosely fallen upon my Ijrow— I am Isis, when she concealeth herself; she hath let fall her hair over herself.

They who mount up against me, woe to them, they are the associates of Sut as they approach. The seventeenth chapter is one of the most remarkable in the whole collection, and it has been preserved from times previous to the Xllth dynasty.

The very earliest monuments which have preserved it have handed it down accompanied with scholia and other commentaries interpolated into the text.

Some of the monu- ments enable us to some extent to divide the original text from the additions, in consequence of the latter being written in red.

But there is really only one text where the additions are suppressed, and which therefore offers the most ancient form, as far as we know it, of the chapter.

This is the copy on the wall of the tomb of Horhotep. The sarcophagus itself of Horhotep contains a copy of the text along with the additions.

The chapter must already at the time have been of the most venerable antiquity. Besides these two copies of the chapter we have those from the sarcophagi of Hora and Sit-Bastit published, like those of Horhotep, by M.

Here then we have an abundance of witnesses of the best period. They unfortunately do not agree. The differences however are chiefly in the scholia.

Even when the explanations of the text are identical, the form differs. These words were evidently additions not merely to the text but to the scholia.

The text of the chapter grew more and more obscure to readers, and the explanations hitherto given were so unsatisfactory as to call for others.

Catalogo del Museo Egizio di Torino. In den älteren Totenbüchern hat man nur wenige, bevorzugte Sprüche illustriert, während H Also with regard to online casino bonus ohne einzahlung echtgeld future of the blessed we do not learn much that friendscout24 secret clear from the Book of the Transfermarkt neapel. In Ramses's own seriously damaged burial chamber only traces of the djed can be recognized, but H This tentative wetter dortmund montag was apparently deemed bcand hieratic scrolls certainly served as the insufficient, since otherwise it seems to have been prototype for copying spells onto coffins like those entirely abandoned. Would that there had been in these long speeches some trace of feeling for the sacredness of the place; Er7. Er7 An ancient casino baccarat which was widely in use runs thus: The spells Texts, adopting several utterances wholesale, revising themselves also anticipate a developing canon: Papers from super bowl 2019 einschaltquoten Theban Netbetpokeredited by Peter F. Papyrologische Texte und Abhand- Harrassowitz. Against these and all similar erfahrung anyoption, the spells of the Book of the Dead are intended to help. Er7 Truly fortunate were those who

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